The oberste dachkante approach counts only the most extreme cases (or phases) of love and love-related behaviors as being potential instances of addiction
While the specific nature of mutma?ung parallels has been described inside inconsistent language throughout the literature, two main approaches to conceptualizing the relationship between love and addiction can beryllium usefully teased nicht mehr angesagt. Research inside this vein focuses on sexual compulsions, paedophilia, toxic or abusive relationships, abnorm attachments and unhealthy tolerance of negative life- and relationship outcomes (e.g., Carnes 2005; Reynaud et leichtmetall. 2010).
The second approach takes a wohnhaft advers view, and counts even “normal” romantic passions as being chemically and behaviorally analogous to addiction (eulersche zahl.g., Fisher et alu. 2010; Burkett and Young, 2012). Studies in this vein emphasize the commonality between the experience of someone under the influence of certain drugs and the quite ordinary experience of someone hinein love-including her “focused attention” on a wohnhaft preferred individual, “mood swings, craving, manie, compulsion, distortion of reality, psychologisch dependence, personality changes, risk-taking, and loss of self-control” (Fisher et aluminium. 2010, 51). Burkett and Young (2012, 1) go wirklich so far as to defend vietnamcupid installieren the hypothesis that beginners all purpose symbolic instruction code social attachment – covering the whole course of love-based relationships from aufnahme to break-up – may be understood as a qualitat of behavioral addiction “whereby the subject becomes addicted to another individual and the cues that predict social reward.”
Hinein the following sections, we highlight some of the latest thinking on the spirit of romantic love considered as eingeschaltet addiction, drawing on behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of both love and addiction. By doing auf diese weise, we hope to give a taste of, as well as to clarify, the existing evidence as part of favor of behauptung differing accounts. Following that, we will attempt to explore some of the moralvorstellungen and practical implications that beginning to emerge once we recognize that:
Along the way, we will entertain some possible objections to our views, as well as offer our replies
Ur main thesis will be that on either understanding of love-as-addiction, there had been a wohnhaft reasonable case to be made that, within some instances, “treatment” of love could be justified or even desirable. We will demzufolge argue that respecting the lovers’ autonomy should beryllium paramount inside any treatment decision.
Although scholarly attitudes have been shifting in recent years, the dominant modell of addictive drug use-among neuroscientists and psychiatrists, erstes testament least-is that drugs are addictive because they gradually elicit pervers, unnatural patterns of function hinein the menschenfreundlich brain (Foddy and Savulescu 2010). On this ‘narrow’ view of addiction, addictive behaviors are produced by brain processes that simply do leid exist as part of the brains of non-addicted persons. 2
One especially popular vari ion of this view holds that drugs ‘co-opt’ neurotransmitters within the brain to create signals of reward that dwarf the strength of ‘natural rewards’ such as food or beischlaf. They thereby produce patterns of learning and cellular veranderung hinein the brain that could never be produced without drugs (eulersche zahl.g. Volkow et aluminium. 2010). According to this strict account, then, addictive drug-looking is an au?er der reihe geflecht of behavior that had been peculiar to drug addicts, both heilsam and as part of underlying function. Edv follows that natural rewards like food and love can never be truly addictive, and that food-looking or love-seeking behaviors are leid truly the result of addiction, no matter how addiction-like they may outwardly appear.
Other researchers, however, have noted appreciable behavioral similarities between binge-eaters (for example) and drug users, and have flagged a growing body of evidence that welches suggestive of neurological similarities as well (Foddy 2011). Sweet food, to take ohne rest durch zwei teilbar one example, can elicit a wohnhaft reward kurzel bei the brain as strong as the reward from a typical muschi of cocaine (Lenoir et alu. 2007). Bei addition, informationstechnologie can even induce-erstes testament least in rats-a wohnhaft withdrawal syndrome as strong as that induced by heroin (Avena et al. 2007). If eingeschaltet illicit drug like cocaine, therefore, can produce ‘abnormal’ brain processes by providing abnormal and chronic reward, then sic might an abnormally high natural reward, like the reward one gets from bingeing on food, or from experiencing unusually strong or frequent feelings of love. Given vermutung considerations, a more plausible ‘narrow’ view of love addiction would hold that one can indeed beryllium addicted to love, but only if mutma?ung pervers brain processes are present.